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Getting around can't connect to X session as root; Could not open X display; No protocol specified; XDG_RUNTIME_DIR not set in the environment

Running X apps as root
By default, and for security reasons, root will be unable to connect to a non-root user's X server. There are multiple ways of allowing root to do so, if it is necessary.
The most secure methods

The most secure methods are simple. They include:
kdesu (included with KDE)
$ kdesu name-of-app
gksu (included with GNOME)
$ gksu name-of-app
bashrun (in community)
$ bashrun --su name-of-app
sudo (must be installed and properly configured with visudo)
$ sudo name-of-app
suxAUR (wrapper around su which will transfer your X credentials)
$ sux root name-of-app
These are the preferred methods, because they automatically exit when the application exits, negating any security risks quite completely.
Alternate methods

These methods will allow root to connect to a non-root user's X server, but present varying levels of security risks, especially if you run ssh. If you are behind a firewall, you may consider them to be safe enough for your requirements.
Temporarily allow root access
$ xhost +
will temporarily allow root, or anyone to connect your X server. Likewise,
$ xhost -
will disallow this function afterward.
Some users also use:
$ xhost + localhost
(Your X server must be configured to listen to TCP connections for xhost + localhost to work).
Permanently allow root access
Method 1: Add the line
session optional
to /etc/pam.d/su and /etc/pam.d/su-l. Then switch to your root user using 'su' or 'su -'.
Method 2: Globally in /etc/profile
Add the following to /etc/profile
export XAUTHORITY=/home/non-root-usersname/.Xauthority
This will permanently allow root to connect to a non-root user's X server.
Or, merely specify a particular app:
export XAUTHORITY=/home/usersname/.Xauthority kwrite